Native to (or naturalized in) Oregon:
- Conifer, evergreen, rather small, rounded crown shrub or tree to a slender conical tree, 30-80 ft (10-25 m) tall. Needles yellow-green to dark green, 2 per bundle (fascicle), 2-8 cm, twisted, all surfaces with fine stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate; sheath 3-6 mm long, persistent. Cones ovate, 3-6 cm long, may fall after seed drop or persist closed for years.
- Native range extends from southern Alaska, western Canada (Northwest Territories, Yukon, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan), western U.S. (Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, Colorado, Utah), and into Mexico (Baja California Norte).
Four generally recognized sub-groups:
- Pinus contorta var. contorta (Shore Pine) - 40-50 ft (12-15 m) tall, irregular, spreading, broad rounded crown, young shoots twisted, dark brown bark. Native range from the coast of Alaska along the Pacific Ocean to northern California.
- Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Lodgepole Pine) - tree, 110 ft (30 m), columnar, especially when in tight stands. One of the most widely distributed pines in the western hemisphere, extending from Alaska south to Mexico and east through the Rocky Mountains and into South Dakota.
- Pinus contorta var. murrayana (Sierra Lodgepole Pine) - trees to 110 ft (~36 m) tall, straight, little tapering; crown mostly conic at maturity. Needles somewhat wider. Cones buff-brown (unlike darker orange-brown of other var.), they fall soon after shedding seeds (which are larger). Found in the Sierra Nevada, Cascade and Klamath Mountains (Washington, Oregon, California) and in Mexico's Baja California Norte.
- Pinus contorta var. bolanderi (Mendocino White Plains Lodgepole Pine, Bolanders Beach Pine) - low trees, not over 35 ft, needles under 5 cm long, cones very asymmetrical. Known only from a few good occurrences in the white sand barrens along the coast in Mendocino County.
- contorta: twisted, bent irregularly