Native to (or naturalized in) Oregon:
- Conifer, small evergreen tree, 15-40 ft (4.5-12 m) tall and 10-30 ft (3-9 m) wide, occasionally larger but often only a shrub, broad open pyramid, becoming-flat topped, branches arise irregularly from the stem, often wide spreading. Bark thin and smooth, finally with scaly plates, reddish brown. Leaves (needles) two per bundle (fascicle), dark to pale yellow green, stiff, usually twisted, 4-8 cm long, short prickly tip, margins serrate, stomatal lines on both sides; persist for 3-4 years. Cones grouped 2-4, occasionally solitary, short stalked, oblong-conical, 4-6 cm long, symmetrical, red brown, has sharp upward curved thorns, ripens in the second season but may persist for 5 years.
- Sun or light shade. Performs well in poor, dry soils, best on clay or sandy loam. It responds well to trimming and is preferred as a Christmas tree in southern states.
- Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native range extends from southern New York to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland and Delaware.
- A limited number of selections in the nursery trade, one, 'Wate's Golden' - is upright, slow growing, about 2 ft (0.6 m) per year, open, needles golden-yellow in winter, green in summer