Pinus thunbergii
Common name: 
Japanese Black Pine
PI-nus thun-BERJ-ee-eye
Pinus thunbergiana
Native to (or naturalized in) Oregon: 
  • Conifer, evergreen tree, 20-80 ft (6-24 m), irregular but more or less pyramidal in youth, with age spreading and often with pendulous branches.   Black-gray, furrowed into irregular scales.  Needles in pairs, dark green, twisted more or less spreading, 6-11 cm long, fine pointed, rigid, stomatic lines on each surface, bundle sheath 13 mm long, thread-like segments, persistent.  Terminal buds ovoid-cylindrical, apex-pointed, 1.2-2 cm long, not resinous, gray or silvery white.  Cones subterminal, symmetrical, ovoid to conical, 4-6 cm long, 3-4.5 cm wide.
  • Sun. Prefers fertile, moist, well-drained soil, but grows on sandy soils; salt and drought tolerant.  Can be grown almost down to the ocean shore, used for reclaiming sand dunes.
  • Hardy to USDA Zone (5)6     Native to Japan.  One of the "most picturesque trees in Japan and it occurs in park like groves, particularly on the Island Sea"....on "flat, sandy beaches, black pine grows on rocky cliffs where it's vulnerable by salt spray" grow to 130 feet tall on optimum conditions but under more rigorous circumstances, it seldom exceeds 40 feet.....on "poor sites it develops an irregular crown with short twisted branches"...the "contorted character is, of course, also the basis for black pine becoming a major bonsai subject."  (John L. Creech, Asian conifers, NMPro, Sept. 2002, p. 59-62).
  • thunbergii: after Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828), Swedish physician and botanist from Univ. Uppsala who traveled in E. Asia and introduced may plants from Japan.


Click image to enlarge
  • plant habit

    plant habit

  • plant habit, young and mature

    plant habit, young and mature

  • branches


  • buds, needles, fall

    buds, needles, fall

  • buds, needles, winter

    buds, needles, winter

  • shoots and needles, winter

    shoots and needles, winter

  • developing seed cones

    developing seed cones

  • branch with cones

    branch with cones

  • cones


  • cones, comparison

    cones, comparison

  • trunks, bark

    trunks, bark