acuminate - an apex (such at the tip of a leaf) with sides gradually concave and tapering to a point
acute - tapering to an apex with more or less straight sides
alternate - parts (as leaves) situated one at a node
aril - tissue that forms a fleshy covering of the seed, as in Taxum and Torreya, or rudimentary at the base of the fleshy seed, as in Cephalotaxus
bristle - stiff hair
bud scale - covering which protects the embryonic tissue of a bud
calyx - the outer set of segments (sepals) or envelope of a flower; usually green in color and smaller than the inner set (i.e. petals)
compound -  subdivided into several distinct parts; such as leaflets in a compound leaf (e.g., black walnut)
cordate - heart-shaped, with the notch at the base
crenate - rounded teeth on a margin
crenate-serrate - having a mixture of blunt and sharp teeth
crenulate - very small rounded teeth on a margin
cuneate - wedge-shaped; triangular and tapering to a point at the base
cyme - a flat or round-topped determinate inflorescence, in which the terminal flower blooms first
dentate - having marginal teeth whose apices are perpendicular to the margin and do not point forward
dioecious - flowers imperfect, the staminate (male) and pistillate (female) flowers borne on different plants
double flower - one with more than the usual number of petals, colored sepals or bracts (frequently double the usual number)
doubly serrate - serrations bearing minute teeth on margin
elliptic - in the shape of an ellipse, or a narrow oval; broadest at the middle and narrower at the two equal ends
emarginate - slight notch at the an apex
entire - having a margin without teeth or crenations
fastigiate - branches erect and close together
glabrous - not hairy (A glabrous surface need not be smooth, it could be bumpy)
glaucous - covered with a waxy bloom which rubs off easily (e g bloom on a blueberry fruit)
globose - round or spherical-like
hairy - pubescent with longer hairs
herbaceous - lacking a persistent woody stem above ground
hip - the fruit of a rose
imbricated - overlapping, such as roof shingle
imperfect flowers - one that lacks either stamens (the male parts) or pistils (the female parts)
indeterminate - describes an inflorescence in which the lower or outer flowers bloom first, thus allowing indefinite elongation of the main axis
inflorescence - a flower cluster; the arrangement of the flowers on the flowering axis
internode - the part of a stem between nodes
lanceolate - lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle and tapering to the apex
lateral bud - a bud borne in the axil of a leaf
leaf scar - the mark on a twig after a leaf falls
lenticel - a small corky spot on young bark made of loosely packed cells
linear - resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides
lustrous - having a slight metallic gloss, less reflective than glossy
midrib - the primary-rib or mid-vein of a leaf
monoecious - flowers imperfect, the staminate (male) and pistillate (flowers) borne of the same plant (compare dioecious)
mucronate - abruptly terminated by a sharp point, a mucro
naked bud - one without scales
nodding - drooping, bending over
node - a joint on a stem (point of origin of a leaf or bud)
ob- - a prefix indicating the inverse
oblong - longer than broad, rectangular, sides more or less parallel
obovate - the inverse of ovate, broadest above the middle
ocrea (ochrea) - a tubular stipule or a pair of stipules united into a sheath
opposite - two parts (such as leaves) at a node
ovate - egg-shaped in outline; broadest below the middle, oval-like
ovoid - an egg-shaped three dimensional solid
ovule - the egg-containing unit of the ovary, develops into the seed
palmate - radiating fan-like from a common point
panicle - a branched indeterminate inflorescence [flower cluster] with flowers maturing from the bottom upwards
perfect flowers - have both functional stamens (male parts) and pistils (female parts)
petiole - the leaf stalk
petiolule - the stalk of a leaflet
pinnate - segments along each side of a common axis
pith - the soft tissue in inner central portion of a stem
polygamous - bearing unisexual and bisexual flowers on the same plant
prickle - a small, sharp, outgrowth of the epidermis or bark (compare spine and thorn)
prostrate - lying flat on the ground, a general term
proximal - toward the base
pubescent - covered with short hairs, a general term
raceme - an unbranched, elongated inflorescence with flowers maturing from the bottom upwards
samara - a dry indehiscent fruit bearing a wing, Examples: ash, maple
sepal - a division of the calyx; the outermost floral organs
serrate - saw toothed, teeth pointing forward
serrulate - minutely serrate
sessile - without a stalk
simple - undivided, as a leaf blade which in not separated into separate leaflets (e.g., elm leaf), (though the blade may be deeply lobed as in many maple leaves), compare to the term, compound.
spine - a stiff, slender, sharp-pointed structure arising from below the epidermis; representing a modified leaf or stipule. Sometime applied to structure with the appearance of a true spine
thorn - a stiff, woody, modified stem with a sharp point, sometimes applied to anything resembling a true thorn (see spine and prickle)
tomentose - densely woolly, hairs soft and matted
tomentum - dense matted hairs
torus - the recepticle of a flower (in blackberries it remains with the fruit when picked)
trifoliate - three leaved; or a leaf with three leaflets (correct term is actually trifoliolate)
truncate - as if cut off at right angels to the primary axis
umbel - an unbranched inflorescence in which the stalks (pedicels) arise from a common point, like the struts of an umbrella
undulate - wavy, said of a margin
var. - an abbreviation of variety, Latin varietas. In the botanical sense, variety is a population of plants of a species that display marked differences in nature, and these differences are transmitted by seed (i e , inherited). Sometimes subspecies (abbreviated ssp) is used in place of variety. Their use depends upon the taxonomic "school" of the writer.