Native to (or naturalized in) Oregon:
- Conifer, evergreen tree, to 60ft (18 m) tall, even 120 ft (37 m) in its habitat, densely branched to the ground, conical crown. Bark brown, exfoliating in thin scales. Needles dark green, very glossy, 6-12 mm long, 4 sided in cross section, densely arranged and rather stiff, 1-4 stomatal lines on all sides. Cones cylindrical-ovate, 5-10 cm long, 2 cm in diameter, violet when ripening, brown when ripe, scales entire at margin.
- Sun. Tolerates gravelly soils. Protect from harsh winter winds.
- Hardy to USDA Zone 4 Native to the Caucasus and Asia Minor.
Several cultivars, including:
- ‘Atrovirens’ - tree, rich, dark green, upright conical.
- ‘Aureospicata’ - young growth light yellow, turning green in summer.
- ‘Barnes’ - dwarf shrub, nested-form.
- ‘Bergman's Gem’ - dwarf globose bun, becomes conical with age, dark green leaves close to the stem.
- ‘Gowdy’ - very upright and narrow, slow growing.
- ‘Nigra Compacta’ - compact, when young wider than tall.
- ‘Skylands’ - tree, upper side of needles golden yellow year-round, narrow conical plant.
- orientalis: eastern.