Native to (or naturalized in) Oregon:
- Broadleaf deciduous shrub or small tree, slow growing, typically to 12-15 ft (3.6-4.5 m) high as a large shrub, but a tree to 20-25 ft (6-7.5 m) tall, or more rarely to 50 ft !5 m). Leaves are glossy dark green, alternate, simple, rather small, only 2.5-5 cm long and 1.3-2.5 cm wide; they are unlobed, oval-elliptic in shape, with prominent veins and doubly serrate margins and short petioles (5-8 mm). Unisexual flowers appear in spring; male flowers are in catkins 2-3 cm long and female catkins are 3-8 cm long with leaf-like bracts which are unlobed and coarsely toothed. Each covers a small flower and later the nutlet fruit, each about 2-4 mm long.
- Best in full sun, tolerant of partial shade, adapts to many soil types, prefers well-drained, drought resistant
- Hardy to USDA Zone 5 Its native range extends from southeastern Europe to western Asia, including parts of southern Italy, Hungary, the Balkans, Turkey, Syria, Caucasus and northern Iran.