Native to (or naturalized in) Oregon:
- Deciduous tree, 30-50(80) ft [9-15(24) m], upright habit, bark reddish brown to almost black, deeply furrowed. Stems zig-zag, often spiny, with paired stipular prickles at nodes, these are more prominent on vigorous shoots and suckers. Terminal buds absent. Leaves alternate, compound (odd-pinnate), 15-35 cm long, with 7-19 opposite leaflets, each 2.5-5 cm long, elliptic or ovate, bluish green. Flowers white, 2.5 cm pea-type, in 10-20 cm long racemes, fragrant. Fruit pod-like, flat, brown-black 5-10 cm long, mature in Oct.
- Sun, will grow in about any soil except permanently wet. Michael Dirr (p. 1014, 2009) calls it an "alley cat" type tree which can survive under the toughest conditions. Bees produce a delicious honey from the flowers. Twigs and bark are poisonous to domestic livestock.
- Hardy to USDA Zone 3 Native from Pennsylvania to Georgia, west to Iowa, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Extensively planted in the West, where it has escaped from cultivation in many areas. Naturalized in Oregon, mostly in western and northeastern counties.
- A number of selection in the nursery trade, here are three:
- Corvallis: Large tree at 10th and Jackson.